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Tables

Table 1. Fatty acid composition of chia, flax, menhaden fish and algae oils
Fatty acids 14:0 16:0 16:15 18:0 18:16 18:27 18:38 20:38 20:48 20:58 22:58 22:68
Oil % of total fatty acids
Menhaden1   7.9 15.2 10.5 3.8 14.5 2.2 1.5 0.4 1.2 13.2 4.9  8.6
Algae2* 17 32.2  7.8 1.1   4.8 —– —– —– —–  0.7 8.4 27.6
Chía3 —– 6.9 —– 2.8   6.7 19 63.8 —– —– —– —– —–
Flaxseed4 —– 5.5 —– 1.4 19.5 15 57.5 —– —– —– —– —–
1:USDA, 1999; 2:Abril and Barclay., 1998; 3: Coates and Ayerza, 1998; 4: Sultana (1996); 5: ω-7; 6:ω-9; 7:ω-6; 8:ω-3; *: DHA Gold™ (Schizochytrium sp.)

 

Table 2. Total content of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fattyacids of chia, flax, menhaden fish and algae oils

Fatty acids

∑ SFA

∑ MUFA

∑ ω-6

∑ω-3

Oil % of total fatty acids
Menhaden   26.9     25     2.2    29.8
Algae   50.3     12.6    —-    36.7
Chía     9.7       6.5   19    63.8
Flaxseed     6.9     19.5   15    57.5
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  Table 3. Total ω- fatty acids and α-linolenic:DHA ratios in the eggs from two strains of laying hens fed two levels of chia diets.
Fatty acid1 α-linolenic DHA Total ω-3
Diet mg/egg
Chia 7% 231 123 354
Chia 14% 438 138 576
1Average of eggs from H&N brown and H&N white hens at 27 weeks age; Source: Ayerza and Coates, 2000.
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Table 4. Cholesterol, total fat and ω-3 fatty acid contentof egg yolk, from commercial omega-3 enriched eggs.
Brand Country Cholesterol Total Fat Omega-3 α-Linolenic DHA EPA DHA+EPA Omega-3 Source
(mg/100 g)* (g/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100g)*
Avine Brazil N/A 9.00 418 N/A N/A N/A N/A Flaxseed
Columbus U.K. N/A 10.5 1200 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Egg plus USA 430 9.00 400 200 200 0.00 N/A Flaxseed+Fish oil
Gold Circle USA 430 9.00 350 0.00 350 0.00 N/A Algae
Golden Premium USA 450 N/A 378 46 239 93 N/A Fish oil
Eggland́s Best USA 380 8 100 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Mega-3 Argentina 384 9.18  1120 964 156 0.00 N/A Chía
Naturegg Canada 370 9.80 760 N/A N/A N/A N/A Flaxseed
Maple Canada 354 9.60 620 N/A N/A N/A N/A Flaxseed
Born 3 Canada 312 9.80 800 N/A N/A N/A N/A Flaxseed
Maritime Pride Canada 354 9.3 620 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Dietazul Spain 328 9.00 266 0.00 N/A N/A 266 Fish oil
Pitas Pitas Spain N/A N/A 280 0 260 20 N/A Fish oil
Newstart South Africa 280 9.5 620 300 250 70 320 Fish oil
SuperEgg Ireland N/A 11 228 0 228 0 228 Fish oil
Ovito Piu Italy N/A 8.7 350 N/A 280 N/A N/A Algae
N/A: Not Available.* Per 100 g of egg, without shell
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Table 5. Hen weight, egg production, egg weight, feed consumption andfeed conversion from two lines of lying hens fed 5 different ω-3 diets
Diet Hen Line Hen Weight Egg Weight Egg production Feed consumption Feed conversion
(Lbs.) (g) (%/hen/day) (lbs/hen/day) (lbs. Feed/doz.eggs)
 Commercial Brown 4.5 62.9 88 0.272 3.72
White 3.4 63.1 84 0.232 3.32
Average 4 63 86 0.252 3.52
14 % Flax Brown 4 67.2 84 0.269 3.83
White 3.1 62.8 79 0.243 3.7
Average 3.6 65 82 0.256 3.77
Fish meal Brown 4.6 64.6 83 0.268 3.91
White 3.2 59.2 81 0.217 3.21
Average 3.9 61.9 82 0.242 3.56
14 % Chía Brown 4.2 65.7 83 0.261 3.8
White 3.2 65.7 82 0.218 3.19
Average 3.7 65.7 82 0.24 3.5
Purina Brown 4 63 82 0.309 4.55
White 3.2 61.6 81 0.265 3.97
Average 3.6 62.3 81 0.287 4.26
N/A: Not Available. Source: Ayerza et al. (1999). Propietary information, not to be reproduced or disclosed without permission of the authors
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Table 6. Cholesterol, total fat, saturated fatty acids, and ω-3 fatty acidscontent from two lines of lying hens fed 5 different ω-3 diets
Diet Hen Line Cholesterol Total Fat Saturated Fat Omega-3 α-Linolenic DHA
(mg/100 g)* (g/100 g) * (g/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)*
Commercial Brown N/A 7.52 2.32 206   76 126
White N/A 8.16 2.7 208   84 116
Average 368 7.84 2.5 206   80 122
14 % Flax Brown N/A 6.98 2.1 512 350 138
White N/A 7.24 2.28 584 426 136
Average 354 7.1 2.18 548 388 138
Fish meal Brown N/A 7.18 2.3 400 140 232
White N/A 8.64 2.92 476 180 266
Average 380 7.92 2.6 438 160 248
14 % Chía Brown N/A 7.38 2.14 794 596 164
White N/A 8.08 2.44 1102 904 150
Average 362 7.72 2.28 948 750 158
Purina Brown N/A 7.5 2.38 228 132   80
White N/A 8.86 2.9 182   96   82
Average 412 8.18 2.64 204 114   82
N/A: Not Available.* Per 100 g of egg, without shell. Source: Ayerza et al. (1999). Propietary information, not to be reproduced or disclosed without permission of the authors.
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Table 7. Cholesterol, total fat, total ω-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic and DHAin eggs from HR white and HR brown hens fed 5 different chia levels
    Chia     Hen Cholesterol Total Fat Omega-3 α-Linolenic DHA
(mg/100 g)* (g/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)*
0 % White 412 9.92 107 38 68
Brown N/A 8.57 82 26 55
Average 412 9.25 95 32 62
7 % White 318 9.41 665 421 244
Brown N/A 8.55 547 330 217
Average 318 8.98 606 376 231
14 % White 384 9.18 1120 964 156
Brown N/A 8.06 845 659 185
Average 384 8.62 983 812 171
21 % White 368 10.09 1418 1237 181
Brown N/A 8.79 1153 984 169
Average 368 9.44 1286 1111 175
28 % White 355 10.15 1808 1663 145
Brown N/A 8.42 1351 1244 108
Average 355 9.29 1580 1454 127
* Per 100 g of egg, without shell. Source: Ayerza and Coates, 1999.
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Table 8. Cholesterol, total fat, saturated fatty acids, and ω-3 fatty acidscontent from Shaver white laying hens fed 4 different flax-chia rate diets
Chia Flax Cholesterol Total Fat Saturated Fat Omega-3 α-Linolenic DHA
(%) (%) (mg/100 g)* (g/100 g)* (g/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)* (mg/100 g)*
 0  0 405 a 10.75 ab   3.63 ab  199 c     81 c   118 ab
 9  5 351 a 9.25 c 3.02 c 1009 b   846 b 164 a
11.5  2.5 407 a  9.75 bc 3.08 c 1250 a 1143 a 107 b
14  0 359 a 9.50 c   3.19 bc 1209 a 1112 a   97 b
cr 104.8 1.21 5.61 157.1 145.7 53.75
* Per 100 g of egg, without shell. Source: Ayerza and Coates, 2001. Means within a grouping lacking a common subscript differ (P<0.05) according Duncańs Multiple range Test; cr: critical range for mean separation.
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Table 9. Fatty acid composition percentage of fresh and stored egg yolk lipids from hens fed fish oil (1.6%) and chia seeds (14%) as ω-3 fatty acid’s source
Fatty acids Dietscontrol fish oil chia Statistical significance
∑ SFA 41.27a1 41.17a 37.01b ***
∑ MUFA 32.74a 34.83b 28.56c ***
∑ ω- 3   5.05a   7.21b 16.16c ***
∑ ω- 6 18.88a 14.41b 16.32c ***
∑ PUFA 23.93a 21.61b 32.48c ***
1: Means within a row with no common superscript are significantlydifferent (P<0.05) according to the Least Significant Difference (LSD);*** P < 0.001; Source: Neely, 1999.
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